The action is the direct intermediary between the pianist and the strings and is comprised of many complicated levers of various classes, starting with the keystick and ending with the hammer. Rebuilding and designing an action is a poetic dance of geometry and weight. The player must have the ability to control the dynamics and velocity of each note and clusters of notes. Of particular importance is the hammer which must have an appropriate mass and resiliency to excite the potential range of available sound contained in the string scale and soundboard assembly. This is why we are strong proponents of hammer sampling, whereby various makes of hammers are auditioned only once the piano has been strung with its new belly.


Once the new paradigm of the action design has been determined and the restoration/rebuild is complete, all the parts must be adjusted so that they are not only functioning, but that they are adjusted in such a way that the whole action is tied together to yield a consistently even touch at all dynamic levels, and that the pianist is receiving accurate feedback at an intuitive level for a most subtle performance. This is achieved through a comprehensive 32-step regulation process with particular emphasis on even “after-touch” to unite all the variations within the real-world mechanics of the piano.
Once this is achieved, the hammers are voiced to further develop the subtleties of the piano’s tone. This involves refining the shape of the hammer, mating the hammer to the strings, as well as a combination of reinforcing and/or elasticizing the felt, depending on what is required.

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